EBB project engaged with end-users of marine biological resources to learn about the practical implications of complying with Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) regulations in the countries of origin and the major hurdles they need to face during the process. Sixteen case studies for non-commercial utilisation of genetic resources are presented in this document, selected amongst the more than 30 that EBB followed and supported. These cases illustrate a number of difficulties and grey areas regarding the applicability or not of the Nagoya Protocol within different research contexts and applications. In doing so EBB has proposed and encountered ways to solve such problems. The lessons learnt were applied to improve the EBB best practice guidelines on ABS produced for the provision of ex-situ and in-situ genetic resources within Atlantic area EMBRC collections and biobanks (The EMBRC guide to ABS compliance. Recommendations to marine biological resources collections’ and users’ institutions) and to produce its associated Step by Step guide towards ABS compliance (Seek, keep & transfer: A step-by-step guide to ABS compliance when utilizing marine genetic resources).